What is diabetic foot?

Diabetes frequently affects the feet, changing them. Proper foot care can stop a large portion of these changes. It is crucial to examine your feet every day; if you are unable to do so, ask a family member for assistance. By doing so, you can spot any changes early on and avoid more serious complications.

One of the most frequent complications is diabetic foot, which is a direct result of diabetes. Skin cracking wounds, especially when walking, are difficult to heal due to damage to blood vessels and immune system disruption. Controlling blood sugar levels and getting regular check-ups can help with foot complications and other diabetes-related issues.

Causes of diabetic foot

It is known that diabetes, especially if it is not regulated, or if the patient has high blood glucose levels for a long period of time, leads to chronic complications on the blood vessels and nerves.

Reduced pain and pressure sensations are brought on by diabetic polyneuropathy in the feet. Thus, pressure marks (also known as calluses) develop where there is pressure, which can cause harm to the skin, soft subcutaneous tissue, joints, and bones. Over time, as a result, deformities of the feet develop, which then contribute to the development of pressure marks. Charcot’s foot is a very severe variation of this deformity.

Large blood vessel damage causes a reduction in blood flow to the feet. Frequently dry and prone to cracking, the skin (especially the area between the fingers should be examined). Foot wounds form as a result of weakened circulation, which results in a decreased flow of nutrients and oxygen. High glycemic values frequently encourage infection, which complicates wound healing and can spread to deeper soft tissues, joints, and bone. This greatly impairs the effectiveness of treatment. Most frequently, both complications coexist in diabetics.

It is challenging to control blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose levels when there is excess body mass. Body mass abruptly decreases and blood glucose levels rise in type 1 diabetes, but after starting insulin therapy, body mass returns to normal. Three important hormones—insulin, glucagon, and leptin—that metabolically influence blood sugar levels serve as a direct link between obesity and diabetes.

Diabetic polyneuropathy causes lessened pain and pressure sensations in the feet. Since pressure causes pressure marks (also referred to as calluses) to form where there is pressure, the skin, soft subcutaneous tissue, joints, and bones may suffer as a result. Pressure marks gradually start to appear as a result of the development of foot deformities over time. A very severe variation of this deformity is Charcot’s foot.

Examination of the diabetic foot

A foot exam should be performed in a medical setting once a year at the very least. The condition of the circulation, nerve damage, the presence of potential deformities, prints, changes in skin tone, and, of course, the presence of wounds on the feet are given special consideration (at the same time, special attention should be directed to the detection of possible wound infection).

At least once a year, a foot exam should be done in a medical setting. Given particular consideration are the circulation, nerve damage, potential deformities, prints, changes in skin tone, and, of course, the presence of wounds on the feet (at the same time, special attention should be directed to the detection of possible wound infection).

Pressure marks are extremely important because a wound frequently develops where there is the most pressure and where pressure marks are formed. Additionally, it serves as a caution that the footwear might not be suitable. Additionally, a number of foot deformities combined with the wrong shoes can result in pressure marks, or ulcers (wounds), at the pressure point.

The correct selection of footwear can prevent the development of possible complications on the feet (such as ingrown nails, fungal diseases of the feet, pressure marks).

S.J.
18.07.2022.