Who develops rheumatoid arthritis most frequently and how is it treated?

Who suffers from rheumatoid arthritis the most?

Women are more likely than men to get rheumatoid arthritis, which they do 2 to 4 times more frequently. Even though the condition can manifest at any stage in life, most people who encounter the first symptoms are between the ages of 40 and 60. Rheumatoid arthritis is more common than in the rest of the world in North America, the Nordic nations, and the Middle East, whereas it is rarest in Africa and Asia. In general, urban locations are where this condition is more prevalent. This is also influenced by environmental variables such exposure to mineral oils, air pollution, and cigarette use.

Risk group

Smokers, obese people, and those with changed intestinal flora are at risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis. Smoking is a serious risk and is among the most powerful environmental factors known to have an impact on the titre of the rheumatoid factor (RF). It is a factor that is also manageable and avoidable. The danger rises with the number of packs of cigarettes smoked each day and the duration of smoking. Viral infections, silicon oxide exposure, and blood transfusions are a few environmental factors that exacerbate the illness. A diet high in omega-3 and omega-9 fatty acids, as well as consumption of beta carotene and vitamin E, reduces the risk. Maintaining a healthy body weight is advised to prevent extra joint damage from the strain.

Treatment

The prognosis is better the earlier rheumatoid arthritis is detected since therapy may begin right away. The purpose of treatment is to enhance mobility, lessen joint pain, lessen systemic damage (to the nerves, skin, and eyes), and slow down cartilage degradation. Pain is treated with anti-inflammatory medications such aspirin, paracetamol, diclofenac, and ketoprofen. Additionally, corticosteroids are employed in the therapy. either as pills or injections. Although they have a good anti-inflammatory impact, long-term use is not advised. There are several negative outcomes, including iatrogenic diabetes, osteoporosis, and an increased risk of infections.

The course of the disease is altered by the use of DMARDs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic medications). They are used in the early stages of the condition and start working after three months. Cyclosporine, sulfasalazine, tetracycline, and azathioprine are a few of these.

Rheumatoid arthritis is frequently treated with biological therapy today. It reduces the production of inflammatory substances in the body (like TNF). It was produced using recombinant technology in a lab.

Prognosis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an unpredictable condition, and it is very challenging to forecast which way the disease will progress. No laboratory, clinical, or radiographic sign of illness progression exists, even though models exist for predicting progression. Prognostic models that can be used to predict how the disease will develop were first developed. As markers of a poor prognosis for rheumatoid arthritis, they include high antibody titres (RF), high CRP, and poor radiological findings. As indicators of a good prognosis, these include a small number of affected joints, low CRP, and the absence of erosive joint changes.

S.J.
24.08.2022.